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Murnar Ranar Aiki

Lokaci: 2020-08-27 hits: 27

1 ga Mayu, Ranar Ma'aikata ta Duniya, don tunawa da gwagwarmayar tarihi na ma'aikata masu aiki a duk faɗin duniya, kuma ana saninsa a yawancin ƙasashe. Amurka da Kanada suna daga cikin keɓaɓɓun. Wannan duk da cewa hutun ya fara ne a cikin 1880s a cikin Amurka, wanda ke da nasaba da yaƙin na tsawon awa takwas, da kuma masu rikici na Chicago.

Gwagwarmayar tsawon awanni takwas ya fara a cikin 1860s. A cikin 1884, ofungiyar Traungiyoyin Traungiyoyin andungiyoyi da andungiyoyin Laborungiyoyin Laborungiyoyin Laborasashe na Amurka da Kanada, wanda aka shirya a 1881 (kuma canza sunansa a cikin 1886 zuwa Federationungiyar Federationasashen Labarai ta Amurka) ya zartar da ƙuduri wanda ya tabbatar da cewa “sa’o’i takwas za su zama aikin ranar doka daga kuma bayan 1 ga Mayu, 1886, kuma muna ba da shawara ga kungiyoyin kwadago a duk wannan gundumar da cewa su jagoranci dokokinsu don dacewa da wannan kudurin ”. A shekara mai zuwa Tarayyar ta sake maimaita sanarwa cewa tsarin awoyi takwas zai fara aiki a ranar 1 ga Mayu, 1886. Tare da tilastawa ma'aikata yin aiki na awanni goma, goma sha biyu, da goma sha hudu a rana, tallafi na tafiyar awanni takwas ya karu cikin sauri . A cikin watanni kafin ranar 1 ga Mayu, 1886, dubban ma'aikata, masu tsari da marasa tsari, mambobin kungiyar Knights na Labour da na tarayya, sun shiga cikin gwagwarmaya. Chicago ita ce babbar cibiyar tashin hankali don gajeriyar rana. 'Yan tawaye sun kasance a kan gaba a kungiyar Kwadago ta Chicago, wacce ta kunshi kungiyoyin kwadago 22 a shekarar 1886, daga cikin su bakwai mafi girma a cikin garin.

Yayin yajin aikin Railroad na 1877, 'yan sanda da Sojojin Amurka sun far wa ma'aikata ƙwarai da gaske. Irin wannan dabarar ta ta'addanci ta gwamnati ta shirya shi don yakar motsi na awa takwas. An karawa 'yan sanda da Masu tsaron kasa girma kuma sun sami sabbin makamai masu karfi da shugabannin kasuwancin yankin suka biya. Comungiyar Kasuwanci ta Chicago ta sayi bindiga ta $ 2000 don Nationalungiyar Tsaro ta Illinoisasa ta Illinois don amfani da ita akan masu yajin. Koyaya, zuwa Mayu 1st, motsi ya riga ya sami nasarori ga yawancin ma'aikatan Chicago. Amma a ranar 3 ga Mayu, 1886, 'yan sanda sun yi harbi a cikin taron masu yajin aiki a Kamfanin Mashin na McCormick Harvester, inda suka kashe aƙalla ɗan wasan gaba, ya ji wa mutane biyar ko shida mummunan rauni, kuma suka ji wa wani adadi da ba a tantance adadinsa rauni ba. Anarchists sun yi kira ga taro taro da gaba kwana a Haymarket square don nuna rashin amincewa da mummunan halin.

Taron ya ci gaba ba tare da wata matsala ba, kuma a lokacin da mai magana na karshe ke kan dakali, tuni taron ruwan sama ya watse, kuma kimanin mutane dari biyu ne suka rage. A lokacin ne wani rukunin 'yan sanda na maza 180 suka shiga cikin square kuma ya ba da umarnin a watse taron. A karshen taron an jefa wani bam a kan ‘yan sanda, ya kashe daya nan take, wasu shida suka mutu daga baya. Kimanin jami'an 'yan sanda saba'in sun ji rauni. ‘Yan sanda sun mayar da martani ta hanyar yin harbi a cikin taron. Yawancin fararen hula da suka ji rauni ko aka kashe daga maharan 'yan sanda ba a tabbatar da su daidai ba. Kodayake ba a tantance wanda ya jefa bam din ba, amma an yi amfani da lamarin a matsayin wani uzuri na kai hari ga masu adawa da kungiyar kwadagon baki daya. 'Yan sanda sun mamaye gidaje da ofisoshin waɗanda ake zargi da tsattsauran ra'ayi, kuma an kame ɗarurruwa ba tare da tuhuma ba. Mulkin 'yan sanda ta'addanci ya mamaye Chicago. Gangamin “kai hare-hare” a cikin gundumomin da ke aiki, ‘yan sanda sun tattara duk wasu sanannun masu rudani da sauran masu ra'ayin gurguzu. “Yi samamen farko da duba doka daga baya!” yayiwa lauyan jihar nasiha a bainar jama'a.

Musamman 'yan tawaye sun gallaza, kuma an tuhumi takwas daga cikin wadanda suka fi karfi a Chicago da hada baki don kisan kai dangane da tashin bam din Haymarket. Wata kotun kangaroo ta samu duka takwas din da laifi, duk da rashin kwararan shaidun da ke alakanta dayansu da mai jefa bam, kuma sun kasance yanke masa hukunci ya mutu. A watan Oktoba 9, 1886, jaridar mako-mako Knights of Labour da aka buga a Chicago, motagani a shafi na 1 sanarwa mai zuwa: “Next mako za mu fara wallafa rayuwar masu rudani da talla a wani shafi. ” Talla, motaried a shafi na 14, karanta: “Labarin‘ yan tawaye, da kansu suka faɗi; Parsons, 'yan leken asiri, Fielden, Schwab, Fischer, Lingg, Engle, Neebe. Tarihin gaskiya ne kawai na mutanen da suke da'awar cewa an yanke musu hukuncin kisa saboda amfani da 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki: associationungiyar su da Laborungiyoyin' Yan kwadago, Socialungiyoyin Tattalin Arziki da Rarrabuwar kai, ra'ayoyin su game da manufofi da abubuwan waɗannan ƙungiyoyi, da kuma yadda suke tsammani don cim ma su; Har ila yau alaƙar su da Chicago Haymarket Affair. Kowane mutum marubucin labarin kansa ne, wanda zai bayyana ne kawai a cikin "Knights na Labour" a lokacin gaba watanni uku, - babbar takardar kwadago ta Amurka, takarda mai shafi 16 a kowane mako, mai dauke da dukkan sabbin labarai na kasashen waje da na cikin gida na ranar, labarai, bayanan iyali, da dai sauransu. Takardar hadin gwiwa da mambobi ke da ita. na Knights na Aiki, kuma an tanada don ƙananan kuɗi $ 1.00 kowace shekara. Adress all sadarwa zuwa Knights na Labour Publishing Company, 163 Washington St., Chicago, rashin lafiya. " Daga baya wannan mujallar da Aararrawar takarda sun buga tarihin rayuwar mutanen Haymarket.

Albert Parsons, 'yan leƙen asirin Agusta, Adolf Fischer da George An rataye Engel a ranar 11 ga Nuwamba, 1887. Louis Lingg ya kashe kansa a kurkuku. Mahukunta sun mika gawarwakin ga abokai domin yi musu jana'iza, kuma an gudanar da daya daga cikin jerin gwanon gawa mafi girma a tarihin Chicago. An kiyasta cewa tsakanin mutane 150,000 zuwa 500,000 sun bi hanyar da aka bi ta hanyar jana'izar wadanda suka yi shahada a Haymarket. Wani abin tunawa ga mutanen da aka zartar ya bayyana ranar 25 ga Yuni, 1893 a Makabartar Waldheim da ke Chicago. Sauran ukun, Samuel Fielden, Osmota Neebe da Michael Schwab, an yi musu gafara a shekarar 1893.

A ranar 26 ga Yuni, 1893, gwamnan Illinois, John Peter Altgeld, ya fitar da sakon yafiya inda ya bayyana karara cewa ba yafiyar ne saboda ya yi imanin cewa mutanen sun wahala sosai, amma saboda ba su da laifi daga laifin da aka gwada su, kuma su da wadanda aka rataye maza sun kasance cikin waɗanda cutar ta shafa, suka cika alkalai da kuma yanke hukunci na son zuciya. Ya lura cewa ba a tabbatar da wadanda ake tuhumar da laifi ba saboda jihar "ba ta taba gano wanda ya jefa bam din da ya kashe dan sandan ba, kuma shaidun ba su nuna wata alaka ba tsakanin wadanda ake kara da mutumin da ya jefa ta."

Ba abin mamaki bane cewa jihar, shugabannin kasuwanci, manyan jami'ai na ƙungiyar, da kafofin watsa labarai zasu so ɓoye ainihin tarihin ranar Mayu. A kokarinta na shafe tarihi da mahimmancin ranar Mayu, gwamnatin Amurka ta ayyana ranar 1 ga Mayu a matsayin "Ranar Shari'a", kuma ta ba wa maaikata maimakon Ranar Ma'aikata, Litinin ta farko ta Satumba - hutu da ba shi da wani muhimmin tarihi.

Koyaya, maimakon murƙushe ayyukan kwadago da ƙungiyoyi masu tayar da kayar baya, abubuwan da suka faru a shekarar 1886 da aiwatar da kisan gillar da aka yi wa Chicago, masu magana da yawun motsi na kwana takwas, sun tara mutane da yawa ƙarnõni na masu tsattsauran ra'ayi. Emma Goldman, wani saurayi ɗan baƙi a lokacin, daga baya ya nuna batun Haymarket a matsayin haihuwarta ta siyasa. Maimakon ɓacewa, ƙungiyar tawaye ta girma ne kawai a bayan Haymarket.

A matsayinmu na ma'aikata, dole ne mu gane da kuma tunawa da ranar Mayu ba kawai don mahimmancin tarihi ba, har ma a matsayin lokaci don tsara batutuwa masu mahimmanci ga ma'aikata, watau mutane, na yau.

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